Country Report Libya November 2009

Political structure

Official name

The Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Form of state

Since 1977 Libya has been a jamahiriya (republic of the people) in accordance with the Third Universal Theory propounded by Colonel Muammar Qadhafi in his Green Book, which is a blend of socialist and Islamic theories inspired by tribal traditions. The jamahiriya system defines the political and social order, which is also governed by the Holy Quran. The General People's Congress is the highest legislative body. In 1992 Colonel Qadhafi changed the political structure by dividing Libya into 1,500 mahallat (communes), each with its own budget and legislative and executive powers, formerly vested in the Basic People's Congresses. The mahallat and the congresses are supervised by Revolutionary Committees directed by secretaries, who are chosen personally by Colonel Qadhafi

Head of state

Colonel Qadhafi was appointed supreme leader by the General People's Congress in March 1990 after taking power in a coup in 1969

Saif Qadhafi was appointed general coordinator of the Popular Social Command in October 2009 with power over the legislature


In 2000 Colonel Qadhafi abolished most central government executive functions, devolving responsibilities to the 26 municipal councils that make up the General People's Congress. Centralised control is maintained over the economy, finance, defence and security, energy, infrastructure, foreign affairs, social security and trade portfolios, the heads of which all report directly to the prime minister's office


The General People's Congress, delegates to which are chosen by the Basic People's Congresses

Secretary of General People's Committee (prime minister): Baghdadi al-Mahmudi

Key ministers

Agriculture & fisheries: Abu Bakr al-Mabruk al-Mansouri

Communications: Mohammed Ali Zeidan

Economy, industry & trade: Mohammed Ali al-Huwaij

Education & scientific research: Abdel-Kabir al-Fakhri

Foreign affairs & international co-operation: Mousa Kousa

Finance & planning: Abdel-Hafez Zleitni

Health & environment: Mohammed Mahmoud al-Hijazi

Industry & mines: Ali Yusuf Zikri

Justice: Mustafa Mohammed Abdel-Jalil

National security: Abdel-Fattah al-Ubaidi

Social affairs: Ibrahim al-Zarruq

Utilities: Matouq Mohammed Matouq

Secretariat of the General People's Congress

Energy: Ali Shamikh Mohammed

Foreign affairs: Suleiman Sasi al-Shahumi

Popular Committees: Asbia Ali Asbia

Popular Congresses: Ibrahim Abderrahman Abjad

Secretary (speaker): Mubarak al-Shamikh

National Oil Corporation chairman

Shokri Ghanem

Central Bank governor

Farhat Omar Bengdara

© 2009 The Economist lntelligence Unit Ltd. All rights reserved
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